List of similarities:
The Epic of Gilgamesh
The Old and the New Testament
1. Gilgamesh to Enkidu: A three plied rope is not easily broken.
King Solomon: (cf. Eccl.4:12)
2. Similarity of Humbaba and Goliath. Humbaba and Goliath’s curses.
3. Curse of Humbaba before death. Similarly in other greek epics we see curses do take place: Aeneus is cursed by Dido before her death. Cyclops curses Odysseus to lose all his men before his death. Cassandra in Aeschyllus’s “Agamemnon” is cursed in giving prophecies but nobody will believe her.
4. Junona’s prayer to send calamitites to Aeneus similar to Gilgamesh’s mother praying for different winds to help her son in battle with Humbaba.
5. Fulfillment of prophecies: 4 different prophecies by oracles to Aeneus fulfilled one by one till he reaches Rome.
6. Fulfillment of prophecy given to Oedipus parents king Laius and queen Jocasta. Sleeping with his mother and killing his father.
7. Fulfillment of many Old Testament prophecies concerning rise and fall of kings.
8. Beginning of many of those literature works “in medias res”.
9. God or gods are establishing life and death of humans and their role in life.
10. It is dangerous or fatal to go against the will of gods.
11. Gods are very capricious and have their favourites. Illiad, Odysseus and Aeneid are full of examples to that.
12. Orpheus also goes to the Underworld to save his bride Eurydice who died from the snake bite.
13. Lots and lots of prophetic similarities interconnected by omens, prophetic utterances and other stuff connected with foretelling the future.
14. Elements of adventure.
15. As Michael Alexander put it in his review of Beowulf: voyage, welcome, feast, boast, arming, fight, reward are partly similar in some of the epics we discuss.
Prophecies, gods favoritism, will of gods vs. will of men, different types of curses, journey to Underworld, conclusions: learning humility, mortality,